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India - Kuwait Tax Treaty

India - Kuwait Tax Treaty

ARTICLE 1

PERSONS COVERED

This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

ARTICLE 2

TAXES COVERED

1. This Agreement shall apply to taxes on income imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its political sub-divisions or local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.

2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income all taxes imposed on total income, or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property and taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises.

3. The existing taxes to which the Agreement shall apply are in particular:

  1. in the case of India:
    the income-tax, including any surcharge thereon;
    (hereinafter referred to as "Indian tax");
  2. in the case of Kuwait:
  1. the corporate Income-tax;
  2. the contribution from the net profits of the Kuwaiti shareholding companies payable to the Kuwait Foundation for Advancement of Science (KFAS);
  3. the Zakat;
  4. the tax subjected according to the Supporting of National Employees law (hereinafter referred to as "Kuwaiti tax").

4. This Agreement shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed under the laws of a Contracting State after the date of signature of the Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

ARTICLE 3

GENERAL DEFINITIONS

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires:

  1. the terms "a Contracting State" and "the other Contracting State" mean the Republic of India or the State of Kuwait as the context requires;
  2. the term "India" means the territory of India and includes the territorial sea and airspace above it, as well as any other maritime zone in which India has sovereign rights, other rights and jurisdiction, according to the Indian law and in accordance with international law, including the U.N. Agreement on the Law of the Sea;
  3. the term "Kuwait" means the territory of the State of Kuwait including any area beyond the territorial sea which in accordance with international law has been or may hereafter be designated, under the laws of Kuwait, as an area over which Kuwait may exercise sovereign rights or jurisdiction;
  4. the term "person" includes an individual, a company, a body of persons and any other entity (which is treated as a taxable unit under the taxation laws in force in the respective Contracting States);
  5. the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity that is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
  6. the term "enterprise" applies to the carrying on of any business;
  7. the terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
  8. the term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;
  9. the term "competent authority" means:
    1. in India : the Central Government in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue) or its authorized representative;
    2. in Kuwait: the Minister of Finance or an authorized representative of the Minister of Finance;
  10. the term "national" means:
    1. any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;
    2. any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;
  11. the term "tax" means Indian or Kuwaiti tax, as the context requires, but shall not include any amount which is payable in respect of any default or omission in relation to the taxes to which this Agreement applies or which represents a penalty or fine imposed relating to those taxes;
  12. the term "fiscal year" means the financial year beginning on the 1st day of April.

2. As regards the application of the Agreement by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the law of that State concerning the taxes to which the Agreement applies and any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State shall prevail over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

ARTICLE 4

RESIDENT

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means:

  1. in the case of India : any person who, under the laws of the State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State;
  2. in the case of Kuwait : an individual who is a Kuwaiti national or an Indian national and who is present in Kuwait for a period or periods totalling in the aggregate at least 183 days in the fiscal year concerned, and a company or an entity which is incorporated in Kuwait and is liable to tax therein.

2. For the purposes of paragraph 1, a resident of a Contracting State shall include all of the following:

  1. the Government of that Contracting State and any political sub-division or local authority thereof;
  2. any governmental institution created in that Contracting State under public law such as a corporation, Central Bank, fund, authority, foundation, agency or other similar entity, which is wholly owned and controlled directly by the Government of that Contracting State.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:

  1. he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
  2. if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
  3. if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;
  4. if his status cannot be determined under the provisions of sub-paras (a) to (c), the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

4. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the Contracting State in which its place of effective management is situated. If the State in which its place of effective management is situated cannot be determined, then the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to settle the question by mutual agreement.

ARTICLE 5

PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term "permanent establishment" includes especially:

  1. a place of management;
  2. a branch;
  3. an office;
  4. a factory;
  5. a workshop;
  6. a sales outlet;
  7. a warehouse in relation to a person providing storage facilities for others;
  8. a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources; and
  9. a farm, plantation or other place where agricultural, forestry, plantation or related activities are carried on.

3. A building site or construction, installation or assembly project or supervisory activities in connection therewith constitutes a permanent establishment only if such site, project or activities last 183 days or more in any twelve-month period.

4. The furnishing of services, including consultancy or managerial services, by an enterprise of a Contracting State through employees or other personnel engaged by the enterprise for such purpose, in the other Contracting State constitutes a permanent establishment only if activities of that nature continue for a period or periods aggregating 183 days or more within any twelve-month period.

5. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include :

  1. the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
  2. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
  3. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
  4. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
  5. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;
  6. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities, mentioned in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

6. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person - other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 9 applies - is acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the first-mentioned Contracting State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, if such a person:

  1. has and habitually exercises in that State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph, or
  2. has no such authority, but habitually maintains in the first-mentioned State a stock of goods or merchandise from which he regularly delivers goods or merchandise on behalf of the enterprise;
  3. habitually secures orders in the first-mentioned State, wholly or almost wholly for the enterprise itself or for such enterprise and other enterprises which are controlled by it or have a controlling interest in it;
  4. in so acting, he manufactures or processes in that Contracting State goods and merchandise belonging to the enterprise.

7. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, an insurance enterprise of a Contracting State shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State if it collects premiums in the territory of that other State or insures risks situated therein through a person other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 9 applies.

8. An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other Contracting State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise and other enterprises, which are controlled by it or have a controlling interest in it, he shall not be considered an agent of an independent status within the meaning of this paragraph.

9. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other Contracting State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not by itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

ARTICLE 6

INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. The term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

ARTICLE 7

BUSINESS PROFITS

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated in that other Contracting State. If the enterprise carries on or has carried on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed deductions those deductible expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere, in accordance with any applicable tax law or regulations of that State. Hence, no such deduction shall be allowed in respect of amounts, if any, charged or paid (otherwise than towards reimbursement of actual expenses) by the permanent establishment to the head office of the enterprise or any of its other offices, by way of royalties, fees or other similar payments in return for the use of patents, know-how or other rights, or by way of commission, for specific services performed or for management, or, except in the case of a banking enterprise, by way of interest on moneys lent to the permanent establishment.

4. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

5. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary, the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

6. For the removal of doubts, it is hereby clarified that if the information available to the tax authority of a Contracting State is inadequate to determine the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment of a person, nothing in this Article shall affect the application of any law or regulations of that Contracting State relating to the determination of the tax liability of that permanent establishment by making of an estimate by the tax authority of that Contracting State of the profits to be subject to the tax of that permanent establishment by the tax authority of that Contracting State, provided that such law or regulations shall be applied, taking into account the information available to the tax authority, consistently with the principles of this Article.

7. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

8. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE 8

SHIPPING AND AIR TRANSPORT

1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall, be taxable only in that State.

2. If the place of effective management of a shipping enterprise is aboard a ship, then it shall be deemed to be situated in the Contracting State in which the home harbour of the ship is situated, or, if there is no such home harbour, in the Contracting State of which the operator of the ship is a resident.

3. For the purpose of this Article, profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic include all of the following:

  1. Profits from the rental on a bareboat basis of ships or aircraft;
  2. Profits from the use, maintenance or rental of containers, including trailers and related equipment for the transport of containers, used for the transport of goods or merchandise;

where such rental or such use, maintenance or rental, as the case may be, is incidental to the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic.

4. For the purposes of this Article interest on funds directly connected with the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be regarded as profits derived from the operation of such ships or aircraft if they are incidental to the carrying on of such business, and the provisions of Article 11 shall not apply in relation to such interest.

5. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

6. It is understood that the provisions of this Article shall replace the provisions of the agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the State of Kuwait for the avoidance of double Taxation of income derived from international Air Transport Signed on 21st April, 1982.

ARTICLE 9

ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

1. Where

  1. an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
  2. the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of the State - and taxes accordingly - profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Agreement and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

ARTICLE 10

DIVIDENDS

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State who is the beneficial owner of such dividends may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends. This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State shall not be taxable in that Contracting State if the beneficial owner of the dividends is:

  1. the Government, a political sub-division or a local authority of the other Contracting State; or
  2. the Central Bank of the other Contracting State; or
  3. other governmental agencies or governmental financial institutions as may be specified and agreed to in an exchange of notes between the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

4. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares including "jouissance" shares or "jouissance" rights, mining shares, founders' shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

ARTICLE 11

INTEREST

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State who is the beneficial owner of such interest may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises, and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, interest paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State shall not be taxable in that Contracting State if the beneficial owner of the interest is:

  1. the Government, a political sub-division or a local authority of the other Contracting State; or
  2. the Central Bank of the other Contracting State; or
  3. other governmental agencies or financial institutions as may be specified and agreed to in an exchange of notes between the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

4. The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debt claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor's profits, and in particular, income from Government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purpose of this Article.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this agreement.

ARTICLE 12

ROYALTIES

1. Royalties or fees for technical services arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties or fees for technical services may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties or fees for technical services is a resident of the other Contracting State the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties or fees for technical services.

3. (a) The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films or films or tapes used for television or radio broadcasting, any patent, trademark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

(b) The term "fees for technical services" as used in this Article means payments of any kind, other than those mentioned in Articles 14 and 15 of this Agreement as consideration for managerial or technical or consultancy services, including the provision of services of technical or other personnel.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties or fees for technical services being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties or fees for technical services arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties or fees for technical services are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Royalties or fees for technical services shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties or fees for technical services, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties or fees for technical services was incurred, and such royalties or fees for technical services are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties or fees for technical services shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties or fees for technical services, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this agreement.

ARTICLE 13

CAPITAL GAINS

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic, or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

4. Gains from the alienation of shares of the capital stock of a company the property of which consists directly or indirectly principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

5. Gains from the alienation of shares other than those mentioned in paragraph 4 in a company which is a resident of a Contracting State may be taxed in the State in which the company issuing the shares is resident.

6. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

ARTICLE 14

INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities or if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding 183 days in the aggregate in any fiscal year. If he has or had such a fixed base, or such a stay in the other Contracting State the income may be taxed in the other Contracting State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base or income derived from activities performed in that State.

2. The term "professional services" includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, surgeons, dentists and accountants.

ARTICLE 15

DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:

  1. the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve-month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, and
  2. the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and
  3. the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic, by an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

4. An individual who is both a national of a Contracting State and an employee of an enterprise of that Contracting State the principal business of which is the operation of aircraft in international traffic, and such individual derives remuneration in respect of duties performed in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned Contracting State in respect of the remuneration derived from his employment with the enterprise.

ARTICLE 16

DIRECTORS' FEES

Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or other similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in that other State.

ARTICLE 17

ARTISTES AND SPORTSMEN

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsmen himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsperson are exercised.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, shall not apply to income derived by entertainers or sportsmen who are residents of a Contracting State from personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State if their visit to and activities in that other Contracting State are substantially supported from the public funds of the first-mentioned or both Contracting States including those of any political sub-division, a local authority or statutory body thereof, nor to income derived by a non-profit making organisation in respect of such activities provided no part of its income is payable to, or is otherwise available for the personal benefit of its proprietors, founders or members.

ARTICLE 18

PENSIONS AND ANNUITIES

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration and annuities paid to an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

2. As used in this Article

  1. the terms "pensions and other similar remuneration" mean periodic payments made after retirement in consideration of past employment or by way of compensation for injuries received in connection with past employment.
  2. the term "annuity" means a stated sum payable to an individual periodically at stated times during life, or during a specified or ascertainable period of time, under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.

ARTICLE 19

GOVERNMENT SERVICE

1. (a) Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such salaries, wages and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:

  1. is a national of that State; or
  2. did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

2. (a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.

3. The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to salaries, wages and other similar remuneration and to pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof.

ARTICLE 20

PROFESSORS, TEACHERS AND RESEARCH SCHOLARS

1. A professor, teacher or research scholar who is or was a resident of the Contracting State immediately before visiting the other Contracting State for the purpose of teaching or engaging in research, or both, at a university, college or other similar institution in that other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that other State on any remuneration for such teaching or research for a period not exceeding two years from the date of his arrival in that other State.

2. This Article shall apply to income from research only if such research is undertaken by the individual in the public interest and not primarily for the benefit of some private person or persons.

3. For the purposes of this Article, an individual shall be deemed to be a resident of a Contracting State if he is resident in that State in the fiscal year in which he visits the other Contracting State or in the immediately preceding fiscal year.

ARTICLE 21

STUDENTS AND TRAINEES

1. Payments which a student or trainee who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that Contracting State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration which a student or trainee who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training derives from temporary services rendered in the first-mentioned Contracting State shall not be taxed in that Contracting State, provided that such services are in connection with his education or training and that the remuneration for such services is necessary to supplement the resources available to him for the purpose of his maintenance.

3. The benefits of this Article shall extend only for such period of time as may be reasonable or customarily required to complete the education or training undertaken.

ARTICLE 22

OTHER INCOME

1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement shall be taxable only in that State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

ARTICLE 23

ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

1. The laws in force in either of the Contracting States shall continue to govern the taxation in the respective Contracting State except where provisions to the contrary are made in this agreement.

2. It is agreed that double taxation shall be avoided in accordance with the following paragraphs of this Article:

  1. in the case of India :
    Where a resident of India derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in both - Kuwait and India, India shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the income-tax paid in Kuwait.
    Such deduction in either case shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax on income as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income which may be taxed in Kuwait.
  2. in the case of Kuwait:
    Where a resident of Kuwait derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in both - India and Kuwait, Kuwait shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the income-tax paid in India.
    Such deduction in either case shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax on income as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income which may be taxed in India.

3. The tax payable in the Contracting State mentioned in paragraph 2 of this Article shall be deemed to include the tax which would have been payable but for the tax incentives granted under the laws of the Contracting State and which are designed to promote economic development.

ARTICLE 24

NON-DISCRIMINATION

1. Individuals possessing the nationality of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which individuals possessing the nationality of that other Contracting State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State, shall not be less favourably levied in that other Contracting State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that State, carrying on the same activities in the same circumstances. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents. This provision shall not be construed as preventing a Contracting State from charging the profits of a Permanent Establishment which a company of the other Contracting State has in the first-mentioned State at a rate of tax which is higher than that imposed on the profits of a similar company of the first-mentioned Contracting State, nor being in conflict with the provisions of Para 3 of Article 7.

3. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 7 of Article 11, or paragraph 7 of Article 12, apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State.

4. Nothing in this Article shall be interpreted as imposing a legal obligation on a Contracting State to extend to the residents of the other Contracting State, the benefit of any treatment, preference or privilege which may be accorded to any third State or its residents by virtue of the formation of a customs union, economic union, a free trade area or any regional or sub-regional arrangement relating wholly or mainly to taxation or movement of capital to which such the first-mentioned Contracting State may be a party.

5. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled directly or indirectly by one or more residents of first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.

6. In this Article, the term 'taxation' means taxes, which are the subject of this agreement.

ARTICLE 25

MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the agreement.

2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Agreement. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Agreement.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. When it seems advisable in order to reach agreement to have an oral exchange of opinions, such exchange may take place through a Commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

ARTICLE 26

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information (including documents or certified copies of the documents) as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Agreement insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by the Agreement. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

  1. to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
  2. to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
  3. to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

3. The Contracting State shall lend assistance to each other in the collection of revenue claims. This assistance is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of this paragraph.

ARTICLE 27

LIMITATION OF BENEFITS

A resident of a Contracting State shall not be entitled to the benefits of this Agreement if its affairs were arranged with the primary purpose to take benefits of this Agreement. The case of legal entities not having bona fide business activities shall be covered by the provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE 28

MISCELLANEOUS RULES

1. The provisions of this Agreement shall not be construed to restrict in any manner any exclusion, exemption, deduction, credit or other allowance now or hereafter accorded either:

  1. by the laws of a Contracting State in the determination of the tax imposed by that Contracting State;
  2. by any other special arrangement on taxation in connection with the economic or technical co-operation between the Contracting States.

2. The competent authorities of each Contracting State may prescribe regulations in order to carry out the provisions of this Agreement.

ARTICLE 29

MEMBERS OF DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND CONSULAR POSTS

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

ARTICLE 30

ENTRY INTO FORCE

1. The Contracting States shall notify each other in writing, through diplomatic channels, of the completion of the procedures required by the respective laws for the entry into force of this Agreement.

2. This Agreement shall enter into force on the date of the later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

3. The provisions of this Agreement shall have effect in respect of income derived in any fiscal year beginning on or after the first day of April next following the calendar year in which the Agreement enters into force.

ARTICLE 31

DURATION AND TERMINATION

This agreement shall remain in force for a period of five years and shall continue in force thereafter for a similar period or periods unless either Contracting State notifies the other in writing, six months before the expiry of the initial or any subsequent period, of its intention to terminate this Agreement. In such event, this Agreement shall cease to have effect in both Contracting States in respect of income derived in any fiscal year on or after the first day of April next following the calendar year in which the notice is given.

IN WITNESS whereof the respective plenipotentiaries of both Contracting States have signed this Agreement.

DONE at New Delhi on 15th day of June, 2006, corresponding to 19th Jamad al awal, 1427 H, two originals, each in the Hindi, Arabic and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.

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