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India - Oman Tax Treaty

India - Oman Tax Treaty

ARTICLE 1

PERSONAL SCOPE

This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

ARTICLE 2

TAXES COVERED

1. The taxes to which this Agreement shall apply are :

  1. in India, the income-tax including any surcharge thereon;
    (hereinafter referred to as "Indian tax")
  2. in the Sultanate of Oman :
    1. the Company Income-tax ;
    2. the Profit Tax on Commercial and Industrial Establishments; (hereinafter referred to as "Omani tax")

2. This Agreement shall also apply to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed by either Contracting State after the date of signature of this Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the taxes referred to in paragraph 1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any substantial changes which are made in their respective taxation laws within one year from the date of such changes.

ARTICLE 3

GENERAL DEFINITIONS

1. In this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires :

  1. the term 'India' means the territory of India and includes the territorial sea and airspace above it, as well as any other maritime zone in which India has sovereign rights, other rights and jurisdictions, according to the Indian Law and in accordance with international law and the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea ;
  2. the term 'the Sultanate of Oman' means the territory of the Sultanate of Oman and the islands belonging thereto, including the territorial waters and any area outside the territorial waters over which the Sultanate of Oman may, in accordance with international law, exercise sovereign rights with respect to the exploration and exploitation of the natural resources of the sea-bed and the sub-soil and the above-lying waters ;
  3. the terms "a Contracting State" and "the other Contracting State" mean India or the Sultanate of Oman as the context requires ;
  4. the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a company or body corporate under the taxation laws in force in the respective Contracting States ;
  5. the term "competent authority" means in the case of India, the Central Government in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue) or their authorised representative; and in the case of Sultanate of Oman, the Ministry of National Economy and Supervisor of Ministry of Finance or his authorised representative.
  6. the terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State ;
  7. the term 'fiscal year' means :
    1. in the case of India, 'previous year' as defined under section 3 of the Income-tax Act, 1961 ;
    2. in the case of the Sultanate of Oman, the 'taxable year' as defined in the Company Income-tax Law, 1981 ;
  8. the term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State ;
  9. the term "national" means any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State, and any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status from the laws in force in the Contracting State;
  10. the term "person" includes an individual, a company, a body of persons and any other entity which is treated as a taxable unit under the taxation laws in force in the respective Contracting States;
  11. the term "tax" means Indian tax or Omani tax, as the context requires, but shall not include any amount which is payable in respect of any default or omission in relation to the taxes to which this Agreement applies or which represents a penalty imposed relating to those taxes.

2. As regards the application of this Agreement by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the law of that Contracting State concerning the taxes to which this Agreement applies.

ARTICLE 4

RESIDENT

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means any person who, under the laws of that Contracting State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1, an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows :

  1. he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests) ;
  2. if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which he has an habitual abode ;
  3. if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State of which he is a national ;
  4. if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1, a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which its place of effective management is situated.

ARTICLE 5

PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of the enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term "permanent establishment" includes especially :

  1. a place of management;
  2. a branch;
  3. an office;
  4. a factory;
  5. a workshop;
  6. a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources;
  7. a building site or construction or assembly project or supervisory activities in connection therewith; but only where such site, project or activity continues for a period of more than 6 months.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include:

  1. the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
  2. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise, solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
  3. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
  4. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
  5. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person (other than an agent of independent status to whom paragraph 5 applies) is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 3 of this Article which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

5. An enterprise of a Contracting State shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that other State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.

6. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in the other Contracting State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

ARTICLE 6

INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. The term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources. Ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

ARTICLE 7

BUSINESS PROFITS

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other Contracting State but only so much of them as is attributable directly or indirectly to that permanent establishment. The words "directly or indirectly" mean, for the purposes of this Article, that where a permanent establishment takes an active part in negotiating, concluding or fulfilling contracts entered into by the enterprise, then notwithstanding that other parts of the enterprise have also participated in those transactions, there shall be attributed to the permanent establishment that proportion of profits of the enterprise arising out of those contracts as the contribution of the permanent establishment to those transactions bears to that of the enterprise as a whole.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the business of the permanent establishment including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere in accordance with the provisions of and subject to the limitations of the tax laws of that State.

4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reasons of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

7. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE 8

AIR TRANSPORT

1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

3. For the purposes of this Article, interest on funds directly connected with the operation of aircraft in international traffic shall be regarded as income or profits derived from the operation of such aircraft, and the provisions of Article 12 shall not apply in relation to such interest.

4. The term "operation of aircraft" means business of transportation by air of passengers, mail, livestock or goods carried on by the owners or lessees or charterers of aircraft, including the sale of tickets for such transportation on behalf of other enterprises, the incidental lease of aircraft and any other activity directly connected with such transportation.

5. For the purposes of this Article and notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1(f) of Article 3, the term "enterprise of a Contracting State" means:

  1. in case of the Sultanate of Oman, Gulf Air, Oman Aviation Services Company (SAOG) and any other enterprise carried on by a resident of the Sultanate of Oman ;
  2. in case of India, Air India, Indian Airlines and any other enterprise carried on by a resident of India.

ARTICLE 9

SHIPPING

1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships in international traffic shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

3. For the purposes of this Article, interest on funds directly connected with the operation of ships in international traffic shall be regarded as income or profits from the operation of such ships and the provisions of Article 12 shall not apply in relation to such interest.

4. The term "operation of ships" means business of transportation by sea of passengers, mail, livestock or goods carried on by the owners or lessees or charterers of ships, including the sale of tickets for such transportation. On behalf of other enterprises, the incidental lease of ships and any other activity directly connected with such transportation.

ARTICLE 10

ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

Where :

  1. an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
  2. the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State, and in either case, conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

ARTICLE 11

DIVIDENDS

1. Dividends paid by a company which is resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of the State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the dividends, the tax so charged shall not exceed:

  1. 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company which owns at least 10 per cent of the shares of the company paying the dividends ;
  2. 12½ per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the Contracting State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 16, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other Contracting State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other Contracting State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other Contracting State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other Contracting State.

ARTICLE 12

INTEREST

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2,

  1. interest arising in a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that State provided it is derived and beneficially owned by :
    1. the Government, a political sub-division or a local authority of the other Contracting State; or
    2. the Central Bank of the other Contracting State;
  2. interest arising in a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that Contracting State to the extent approved by the Government of that Contracting State if it is derived and beneficially owned by any person other than a person referred to in sub-paragraph (a ) who is resident of the other Contracting State provided that the transaction giving rise to the debt-claim has been approved in this regard by the Government of the first-mentioned Contracting State.

4. The term 'interest' as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor's profits, and in particular, income from Government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purpose of this Article.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 16, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that Contracting State itself, a political sub-division, a local authority or a resident of that Contracting State. However, where the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in that Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

ARTICLE 13

ROYALTIES

1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in that Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that Contracting State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties, the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.

3. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work, including cinematograph films, or films or tapes used for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 16, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State where the payer is that Contracting State itself, a political sub-division, a local authority or a resident of that Contracting State. However, where the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in that Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then the royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6. Where by reason of special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

ARTICLE 14

TECHNICAL FEES

1. Technical fees arising in a Contracting State which are derived by a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. However, such technical fees may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that Contracting State; but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the technical fees, the tax so charged shall not exceed 15 per cent of the gross amount of the technical fees.

3. The term "technical fees" as used in this Article means payments of any kind to any person, other than to an employee of the person making the payments, in consideration for any services of a technical, managerial or consultancy nature.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the technical fees, being a resident of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the technical fees arise through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein and the technical fees are effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 16, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Technical fees shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that Contracting State itself, a political sub-division, a local authority, or a resident of the Contracting State. However, where the person paying the technical fees, whether he is a resident of that Contracting State or not, has in that Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the liability to pay the technical fees was incurred, and such technical fees are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base then the technical fees shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the technical fees paid exceeds, for whatever reason, the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of the Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

ARTICLE 15

CAPITAL GAINS

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6, and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or together with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

3. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft or both shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

4. Gains from the alienation of shares of the capital stock of a company the property of which consists directly or indirectly principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State may be taxed in that Contracting State.

5. Gains from the alienation of shares other than those mentioned in paragraph 4 in a company which is a resident of a Contracting State may be taxed in that Contracting State.

6. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that mentioned in paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

ARTICLE 16

INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other independent activities of a similar character shall be taxable only in that Contracting State except in the following circumstances when such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State :

  1. if he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities; in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other Contracting State ; or
  2. if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the relevant fiscal year ; in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from his activities performed in that other State may be taxed in that other State.

2. The term "professional services" include independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities, as well as the independent activities of physicians, surgeons, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

ARTICLE 17

DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned Contracting State if:—

  1. the recipient is present in the other Contracting State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in the relevant fiscal year, and
  2. the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of an employer who is not a resident of the other Contracting State, and
  3. the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other Contracting State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that Contracting State. In case of aircraft, the term "enterprise of a Contracting State" shall have the same meaning as defined in paragraph 5 of Article 8 of this Agreement.

ARTICLE 18

DIRECTORS' FEES

Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

ARTICLE 19

INCOME EARNED BY ENTERTAINERS AND SPORTSPERSONS

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 16 and 17, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician or as a sportsperson, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other Contracting State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 16 and 17, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sprotsperson are exercised.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, income derived by an entertainer or a sportsperson who is a resident of a Contracting State from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned Contracting State, if the activities in the other Contracting State are supported wholly or substantially from the public funds of the first-mentioned Contracting State, including any of its political sub-divisions or local authorities.

4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2 and Articles 7, 16 and 17, where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in his capacity as such in a Contracting State accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson himself but to another person, that income shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State, if that other person is supported wholly or substantially from the public funds of that other Contracting State, including any of its political sub-divisions or local authorities.

ARTICLE 20

REMUNERATION AND PENSIONS IN RESPECT OF GOVERNMENT SERVICE

1. (a) Remuneration other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that Contracting State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

(b) However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that other Contracting State and the individual is a resident of that Contracting State who :

  1. is a national of that other Contracting State; or
  2. did not become a resident of that other Contracting State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

2. (a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that Contracting State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.

(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of that other Contracting State.

3. The provisions of Articles 17, 18 and 21 shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof.

ARTICLE 21

NON-GOVERNMENT PENSIONS AND ANNUITIES

1. Any pension, other than a pension referred to in Article 20, or any annuity derived by a resident of a Contracting State from sources within the other Contracting State may be taxed only in the first-mentioned Contracting State.

2. The term "pension" means a periodic payment made in consideration of past services or by way of compensation for injuries received in the course of performance of services.

3. The term "annuity" means a stated sum payable periodically at stated times during life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time, under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.

ARTICLE 22

PAYMENTS RECEIVED BY STUDENTS AND APPRENTICES

1. A student or business apprentice who is or was a resident of a Contracting State immediately before visiting the other Contracting State and who is present in that other Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training, shall be exempt from tax in other Contracting State on :

  1. payments made to him by persons residing outside that other Contracting State for the purposes of his maintenance, education or training; or
  2. remuneration from employment in that other Contracting State, in an amount not exceeding US dollars 2,000 or its equivalent amount during any fiscal year, provided that such employment is directly related to his studies or is undertaken for the purpose of his maintenance.

2. The benefits of this Article shall extend only for such period of time as may be reasonable or customarily required to complete the education or training undertaken, but in no event shall any individual have the benefits of this Article for more than three consecutive years from the date of his first arrival in that other Contracting State.

ARTICLE 23

PAYMENTS RECEIVED BY PROFESSORS, TEACHERS AND RESEARCH SCHOLARS

1. A professor or teacher who is or was resident of a Contracting State immediately before visiting the other Contracting State for the purpose of teaching or engaging in research, or both, at a university, college, school or other approved institution in that other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that other Contracting State on any remuneration for such teaching or research for a period not exceeding two years from the date of his arrival that other Contracting State.

2. This Article shall not apply to income from research if such research is undertaken primarily for the private benefit of a specific person or persons.

3. For the purposes of this Article and Article 22, an individual shall be deemed to be a resident of a Contracting State if he is a resident in that Contracting State in the fiscal year in which he visits the other Contracting State or in the immediately preceding fiscal year.

4. For the purposes of paragraph 1, "approved institution" means an institution which has been approved in this regard by the competent authority of the concerned Contracting State.

ARTICLE 24

OTHER INCOME

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, which are not expressly dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other Contracting State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right of property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or 16, as the case may be, shall apply.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement and arising in the other Contracting State may also be taxed in that other State.

ARTICLE 25

AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION

1. The law in force in either of the Contracting States will continue to govern the taxation of income in the respective Contracting States except where provisions to the contrary are made in this Agreement.

2. Where a resident of India derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in the Sultanate of Oman, India shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident an amount equal to the income-tax paid in the Sultanate of Oman, whether directly or by deduction. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the income-tax (as computed before the deduction is given) which is attributable to the income which may be taxed in the Sultanate of Oman.

3. Where a resident of the Sultanate of Oman derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in India, the Sultanate of Oman shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of the resident an amount equal to the income-tax paid in India, whether directly or by deduction. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the income-tax (as computed before the deduction is given) which is attributable to the income which may be taxed in India.

4. The tax payable in a Contracting State mentioned in paragraph 2 and paragraph 3 of this Article shall be deemed to include the tax which would have been payable but for the tax incentives granted under the laws of the Contracting State and which are designed to promote economic development.

5. Income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, is not to be subjected to tax in a Contracting State, may be taken into account for calculating the rate of tax to be imposed in that Contracting State.

ARTICLE 26

MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

1. Where a person of a Contracting State considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with this Agreement, he may, notwithstanding the remedies provided by the national laws of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident. This case must be presented within three years of the date of receipt of notice of the action which gives rise to taxation not in accordance with the Agreement.

2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at an appropriate solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation not in accordance with the Agreement. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time-limits in the domestic laws of the Contracting State.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement, any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation of application of this Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in this Agreement.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. When it seems advisable in order to reach agreement to have an oral exchange of opinions, such exchange may take place through a Commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of Contracting States.

ARTICLE 27

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information (including documents) as it is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by this Agreement, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Agreement, in particular for the prevention of fraud or evasion of such taxes. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that Contracting State. However, if the information is originally regarded as secret in the transmitting State, it shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including Courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of objections and appeals in relation to the taxes which are the subject of this Agreement. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes but may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. The competent authorities shall, through consultation, develop appropriate conditions, methods and techniques concerning the matters in respect of which such exchange of information shall be made, including, where appropriate, exchange of information regarding tax avoidance.

2. The exchange of information or documents shall be either on a routine basis or on request with reference to particular cases or both. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall agree from time to time on the list of the information or documents which shall be furnished on a routine basis.

3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation :

  1. to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State ;
  2. to supply information or documents which are not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State ;
  3. to supply information or documents which would disclose any trade, business, indus-trial, commercial or professional secret or trade process or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy.

ARTICLE 28

DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR ACTIVITIES

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic or consular officials under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

ARTICLE 29

ENTRY INTO FORCE

1. Each of the Contracting States shall notify to the other the completion of the procedures required by its law for the bringing into force of this Agreement. This Agreement shall enter into force on the date of the latter of these notifications and shall thereupon have effect :

  1. in India, in respect of income arising in any fiscal year beginning on or after the first day of April next following the calendar year in which the latter of the notifications is given;
  2. in the Sultanate of Oman, in respect of income arising on or after the first day of January in the calendar year immediately following that in which the latter of the notifications is given.

2. The Agreement between the Government of India and the Government of Sultanate of Oman for the Avoidance of Double Taxation of income derived from International Transport signed at New Delhi on 23rd October, 1984 and the exemptions granted under that Agreement will cease to have effect on the date on which this Agreement comes into force.

ARTICLE 30

TERMINATION

This Agreement shall remain in force indefinitely but either of the Contracting States may, on or before the thirtieth day of June in any calendar year beginning after the expiration of a period of five years from the date of its entry into force, give the other Contracting State through diplomatic channels, written notice of termination and, in such event, this Agreement shall cease to have effect :

  1. in India, in respect of income arising in any fiscal year beginning on or after the 1st day of April next following the calendar year in which the notice is given;
  2. in the Sultanate of Oman, in respect of income arising on or after the 1st day of January next in the calendar year immediately following that in which the notice of termination is given.

IN WITNESS whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed the present Agreement.

DONE in duplicate at New Delhi, this 2nd day of April, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven in the Arabic, Hindi and English languages, all the texts being equally authentic. In case of divergent interpretation of the texts, the English text shall prevail.

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