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India - South Africa Tax Treaty

India - South Africa Tax Treaty

ARTICLE 1

PERSONAL SCOPE

This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

ARTICLE 2

TAXES COVERED

1. The existing taxes to which this Agreement shall apply are :

  1. in India, the income-tax (including any surcharge thereon);
    (hereinafter referred to as "Indian tax");
  2. in South Africa :
    1. the income-tax (the normal tax); and
    2. the secondary tax on companies;
      (hereinafter referred to as "South African tax").

2. The Agreement shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed by either Contracting State after the date of signature of the Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

ARTICLE 3

GENERAL DEFINITIONS

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires :

  1. the term "India" means the territory of the Republic of India and includes the territorial sea and air space above it. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term shall cover any other maritime zone in which the Republic of India has sovereign rights, other rights and jurisdictions, according to the Indian law and in accordance with international law in particular as laid down in the UN Convention of the Law of the Sea, 1982; and
  2. the term "South Africa" means the Republic of South Africa and, when used in a geographical sense, includes the territorial sea thereof as well as any area outside the territorial sea, including the continental shelf, which has been or may hereafter be designated, under the laws of South Africa and in accordance with international law, as an area within which South Africa may exercise sovereign rights or jurisdiction;
  3. the terms "a Contracting State" and "the other Contracting State" mean India or South Africa, as the context requires;
  4. the term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a company or body corporate for tax purposes;
  5. the term "competent authority" means :
    1. in India, the Central Government in the Ministry of Finance (Department of Revenue) or their authorised representative; and
    2. in South Africa, the Commissioner for Inland Revenue or his authorised representative;
  6. the terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
  7. the term "fiscal year" means :
    1. in India, the twelve-month period beginning on 1st April;
    2. in South Africa, the "year of assessment" as defined in the Income-tax Act, 1962;
  8. the term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;
  9. the term "national" means :
    1. any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;
    2. any legal person or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;
  10. the term "person" includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons which is treated as an entity for tax purposes under the taxation laws in force in the respective Contracting States; and
  11. the term "tax" means Indian tax or South African tax, as the context requires, but shall not include any amount which is payable in respect of any default or omission in relation to the taxes to which this Agreement applies or which represents a penalty imposed relating to those taxes.

2 . As regards the application of the provisions of the Agreement at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Agreement applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

ARTICLE 4

RESIDENT

1 . For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means :

  1. in India, any person who, under the laws of India, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, but this term does not include any person who is liable to tax in India in respect only of income from sources in India;
  2. in South Africa, any individual who is ordinarily resident in South Africa and any other person which has its place of effective management in South Africa.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1, an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows :

  1. he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
  2. if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
  3. if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;
  4. if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1, a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which its place of effective management is situated. If the State in which its place of effective management is situated cannot be determined, then the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

ARTICLE 5

PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term "permanent establishment" includes especially :

  1. a place of management;
  2. a branch;
  3. an office;
  4. a factory;
  5. a workshop;
  6. a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources, including an installation or structure used for the exploration or exploitation of natural resources; and
  7. a warehouse, in relation to a person providing storage facilities for others.

3. A building site, a construction, installation or assembly project or any supervisory activity in connection with such site or project constitutes a permanent establishment only if it lasts more than six months.

  1. the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
  2. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
  3. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
  4. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise, or for collecting information, for the enterprise;
  5. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character; and
  6. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person - other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies - is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

6. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.

7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

ARTICLE 6

INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property, including income from agriculture or forestry, situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. The term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources. Ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting or use in any other form of immovable property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

ARTICLE 7

BUSINESS PROFITS

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere, in accordance with and subject to the limitations prescribed in the taxation laws in that Contracting State.

4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary. The method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

7. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE 8

SHIPPING AND AIR TRANSPORT

1. Profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.

2. For the purposes of this Article, profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall include :

  1. profits derived from the rental on a bare boat basis of ships or aircraft used in international traffic,
  2. profits derived from the use or rental of containers,

if such profits are incidental to the profits to which the provisions of paragraph 1 apply.

3. For the purposes of this Article, interest on funds connected with the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be regarded as profits derived from the operation of such ships or aircraft and the provisions of Article 11 shall not apply in relation to such interest.

4. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

ARTICLE 9

ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

1. Where :

  1. an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State; or
  2. the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State - and taxes accordingly - profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits if that other State considers the adjustment justified. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Agreement and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

ARTICLE 10

DIVIDENDS

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends.

The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the mode of application of these limitations by mutual agreement.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights participating in profits (not being debt-claims), as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the Contracting State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

ARTICLE 11

INTEREST

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, interest arising in a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that State if it is derived and beneficially owned by :

  1. the Government, a political sub-division or a local authority of the other Contracting State;
  2. the Reserve Bank of India or the South African Reserve Bank; or
  3. any agency or instrumentally which is wholly owned by the Government of a Contracting State and which has been approved in writing by the competent authorities of the Contracting States for the purposes of this paragraph.

4. The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor's profits, and in particular, income from Government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purposes of this Article.

5. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political sub-division, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

ARTICLE 12

ROYALTIES AND FEES FOR TECHNICAL SERVICES

1. Royalties or fees for technical services arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties or fees for technical services may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties or fees for technical services, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties or fees for technical services.

3. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work (including cinematograph films and films, tapes or discs for radio or television broadcasting), any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

4. The term "fees for technical services" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for services of a managerial, technical or consultancy nature, including the provision of services by technical or other personnel, but does not include payments for services mentioned in Article 15.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties or fees for technical services, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties or fees for technical services arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right, property or contract in respect of which the royalties or fees for technical services are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

6. Royalties or fees for technical services shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political sub-division, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties or fees for technical services, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base with which the right, property or contract in respect of which the royalties or fees for technical services are paid is effectively connected, and such royalties or fees for technical services are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties or fees for technical services shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties or fees for technical services exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

ARTICLE 13

CAPITAL GAINS

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the alienation of a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in that State.

4. Gains from the alienation of shares or similar rights in a company, or of an interest in a partnership, trust or estate, the assets of which consist principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State, may be taxed in that State.

5. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the sale, exchange or other disposition, directly or indirectly, of shares or similar rights in a company, other than those mentioned in paragraph 4, which is a resident of the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

6. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in the preceding paragraphs, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

ARTICLE 14

INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State unless he has a fixed base regularly available to him in other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities. If he has such a fixed base, the income may be taxed in the other State but only so much of it as is attributable to that fixed base. For the purposes of this Agreement, where an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State stays in the other Contracting State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve months period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, he shall be deemed to have a fixed base regularly available to him in that other State and the income that is derived from his activities that are performed in that other State shall be attributable to that fixed base.

2. The term "professional services" includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

ARTICLE 15

DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18 and 19, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if :

  1. the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve months period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned;
  2. the remuneration is paid by or on behalf of an employer who is not a resident of the other State; and
  3. the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

ARTICLE 16

DIRECTORS' FEES

Directors' fees and similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

ARTICLE 17

ENTERTAINERS AND SPORTSPERSONS

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsperson are exercised.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, income derived by an entertainer or sportsperson from his personal activities as such shall be exempt from tax in the Contracting State in which these activities are exercised if the activities are exercised within the framework of a visit which is wholly or mainly supported by the other Contracting State, political sub-division, a local authority or public institution thereof.

ARTICLE 18

PENSIONS AND ANNUITIES

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration and annuities arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State, may be taxed in the first-mentioned State.

2. The term "annuity" means a stated sum payable periodically at stated times during life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.

ARTICLE 19

GOVERNMENT SERVICES

1. (a) Salaries, wages and similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such salaries, wages and similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who :

  1. is a national of that State; or
  2. did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

2. (a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.

3. The provisions of Article 15, 16, 17 or 18 shall apply to salaries, wages and similar remuneration, and to pensions, in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof.

ARTICLE 20

STUDENTS, APPRENTICES AND BUSINESS TRAINEES

1. A student, apprentice or business trainee who is present in a Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training and who is, or immediately before being so present was, a resident of the other Contracting State, shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned State on payments received from outside that first-mentioned State for the purposes of his maintenance, education or training.

2. Payments which a student or business apprentice receives as remuneration from employment in the first-mentioned State, in an amount not exceeding a sum equivalent to 3000 US dollars in the currency of the first-mentioned State during any fiscal year shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned State during the period ending five years after the date of his first arrival in the first-mentioned Contracting State.

ARTICLE 21

OTHER INCOME

Items of income arising in a Contracting State which are not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement may be taxed in that State.

ARTICLE 22

ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

Double taxation shall be eliminated as follows :

  1. In India, where a resident of India derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in South Africa, India shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident an amount equal to the South African tax paid, whether directly or by deduction. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the income-tax (as computed before the deduction is given) which is attributable to the income which may be taxed in South Africa.
  2. In South Africa, Indian tax paid by residents of South Africa in respect of income taxable in India, in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement, shall be deducted from the taxes due according to South African fiscal law. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed an amount which bears to the total South African tax payable the same ratio as the income concerned bears to the total income.

ARTICLE 23

NON-DISCRIMINATION

1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected. This provision shall notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as preventing a Contracting State from charging the profits of a permanent establishment which a company of the other Contracting State has in the first-mentioned State at a rate of tax which is not more than 10 percentage points higher than that imposed on the profits of a similar company of the first-mentioned Contracting State, nor as being in conflict with the provisions of paragraph 3 of Article 7 of this Agreement.

3. Nothing contained in this Article shall be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

4. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of that first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.

5. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 5 of Article 11 or paragraph 6 of Article 12 apply, interest, royalties, fees for technical services and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State.

6. In this Article, the term "taxation" means taxes which are the subject of the Agreement.

ARTICLE 24

MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with this Agreement, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 23, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the Agreement.

2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Agreement. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time-limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Agreement.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. When it seems advisable in order to reach agreement to have an oral exchange of opinions, such exchange may take place through a joint commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

ARTICLE 25

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information, including documents, as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Agreement insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic law of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by the Agreement. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation :

  1. to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws or the administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
  2. to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
  3. to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

ARTICLE 26

ASSISTANCE IN RECOVERY

1. The Contracting States shall, to the extent permitted by their respective domestic law, lend assistance to each other in order to recover the taxes referred to in Article 2 as well as interest and penalties with regard to such taxes, provided that reasonable steps to recover such taxes have been taken by the Contracting State requesting such assistance.

2. Claims which are the subject of requests for assistance shall not have priority over taxes owing in the Contracting State rendering assistance and the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 25 shall also apply to any information which, by virtue of this Article, is supplied to the competent authority of a Contracting State.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of the provisions of this Article.

ARTICLE 27

MEMBERS OF DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND CONSULAR POSTS

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

ARTICLE 28

ENTRY INTO FORCE

1. Each of the Contracting States shall notify to the other the completion of the procedures required by its law for the bringing into force of this Agreement. The Agreement shall enter into force on the date of receipt of the later of these notifications.

2. The provisions of the Agreement shall apply :

  1. in India :
    1. in respect of taxes withheld at source, for amounts paid or credited in the fiscal year beginning in the calendar year next following that in which the Agreement enters into force; and
    2. in respect of other taxes, for any fiscal year beginning in the calendar year next following that in which the Agreement enters into force;
  2. in South Africa, in respect of fiscal years beginning on or after the first day of January next following the date upon which the Agreement enters into force.

ARTICLE 29

TERMINATION

1. This Agreement shall remain in force indefinitely but either of the Contracting States may terminate the Agreement through the diplomatic channel, by giving to the other Contracting State written notice of termination not later than 30th June of any calendar year starting five years after the year in which the Agreement entered into force :

2. In such event, the Agreement shall cease to apply :

  1. in India :
    1. in respect of taxes withheld at source, for amounts paid or credited in the fiscal year beginning in the calendar year next following that in which notice is given; and
    2. in respect of other taxes, for any fiscal year beginning in the calendar year next following that in which such notice is given;
  2. in South Africa, in respect of fiscal years beginning after the end of the calendar year in which such notice is given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Agreement.

DONE at New Delhi in duplicate, this Fourth day of December, 1996, in the English and Hindi languages, both texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence in interpretation, the English text shall prevail.

Sd/                                                                                                           -Sd/-

(P. CHIDAMBARAM)                                                                            ALEC ERWIN

The Minister of Finance                                                                           The Minister of Trade and Industry

For the Government of                                                                              For the Government of

the Republic of India                                                                                 Republic of South Africa

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